Handouts for Bulgaria - April 2014

Homework – is it a waste of time?


When students lack the support to do it well.

If we don’t plan for success, we’ll have a lot of correction to do.

When students are so overwhelmed with studies, they are too tired to do it well.

When it’s learning by rote.



When it’s just easier to copy off your friend tomorrow..

Or when mummy will do it..

When the work benefits from collaboration

When we haven’t actually planned how it links with what is done in class or considered its value.



When students are well prepared in class to do it on their own.

Writing a composition - Have you?

brainstormed  vocabulary

pretaught  useful vocabulary

reviewed  grammar to be used

presented ideas

discussed ideas

drawn up plans together


When they see a point in doing it...


Letters to teacher

Preparing input for next lesson e.g doing research, collecting materials, rehearsing dialogues for taping

Part of an ongoing scheme of work e.g. extensive reading, a project, portfolio work


When the medium is appealing

When homework tasks can be chosen

When parents can help and encourage their children at home

When parents are trained/advised how to help their children

When it’s a pleasure to do


Checklist: does the homework:

maximize use of time?

provide pre or post lesson support

encourage independence?

allow for personalisation?




Teaching Exam Classes


Why do we learn a new language?


ü  To be able to express our ideas in it

ü  To be able to understand others

ü  To have access to language arts through it – songs, literature, film etc.

ü  To increase our ‘knowledge capital’

ü  To study abroad

ü  For pleasure

ü  To pass an exam in it


Washback effect - the extent to which a test influences teachers and learners to do things they would not otherwise necessarily do


Dangers of exam driven classes:

Practice tests ad nauseum

Lots of individually done exercises

No learning taking place

Rote learning

Sense of failure


Idea of ‘finishing English’


WE have to:


 Continue to develop skills and language as well as examination techniques

Challenge and engage students

Keep students motivated – in the short and long-term

Ensure students see connections between class work and exams

Plan exam preparation lessons accordingly


Exam skills


Recognise question types

Understand rubric

Know what is required to do well

Avoid common pitfalls

Ability to study on their own

Make an ‘educated guess’

Be confident and prepared!


Writing – assessment criteria


Organisation and cohesion

Appropriacy of register and format



Target reader


Register task-

         Once upon a time……….

         I regret to inform you……………

         In conclusion, it must be stated that………….

         She grabbed the gun and pointed it at Dillon.

         The windows are large and look down onto a flower-filled garden

         All this can be yours for only $999, if you call this number…………

         Add two tablespoons of sugar and stir………

         I look forward to your prompt reply…


Predict – before listening

You hear a woman talking to her son.

Why is she talking to him?

A  to give him a warning

B  to give him permission

C to make a suggestion



Don’t listen


What feature of the cable car makes it particularly good for seeing wildlife in the rainforest?

a.    the speed at which it moves

b.    the height at which it travels

c.    the distance that it covers


What is the main aim of the cable car project?

a.    to educate local people

b.    to persuade people to save the rainforest

c.    to raise money for other conservation projects


What is the advantage of the project for the local people?

a.    They can use the land if they want

b.    They can sell forest products to visitors

c.    More work is available to them



Problems speaking in exams:


Not used to speaking in English

Worried about making mistakes

Don’t understand examiner

Don’t have sufficient vocabulary for task

Make lots of grammar mistakes

Make one word responses


Students need:

English-rich environment

Speaking integrated with other skills

Speaking planned in the lesson

Regular varied speaking tasks

Lots of opportunities to speak together

Pair and group work

Focus on fluency not just accuracy

Focus on phonology



To prepare for exams effectively:

Make clear to students what skills / strategies are needed to do well

Break down and practise individual skills

Reduce the stress

Make it success-oriented

Make it fun – why not?





Face to face with the five language skills


Pronunciation impacts on:

Speaking:      comprehensibility & confidence

Listening:      e.g. Who hasn’t finished? / Festival …

                        overloaded by extensive listening

Writing:          sound spelling relationship e.g. I slept under a ‘shit’

Reading:        sub-vocalization leads to poor processing of input /bad memory of what is read

Robin Walker, English Teaching Professional, January 2014


Sound plays an important role in recalling a word from its meaning…we often have a feeling about the sound on the word… the left pre-frontal cortex is activated when subjects correctly retrieve a word

The Learning Brain, Blakemore & Frith, Blackwell



Before reading:


Share / brainstorm ideas (spidergrams)

Set a research task for homework

Ask students to interview each other on the topic

Show a relevant clip from youtube

Tell students something about the topic

Ask students to predict the text from title/pictures

Ask students to set own questions



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