Some thoughts on Writing

Some thoughts on Writing

It seems to me that writing is still a much-ignored language skill, too often relegated to a homework task and addressed merely because it needs to be done in exams. Not enough attention is given to the process of developing writing skills in the classroom. So, in this post, I’d like to explore some key aspects of why we write and attempt to convince my dear reader to rethink the role of writing in their classroom. 

To begin with let’s consider this question – Why should our students write?

1. To help students learn the system of language

As we need to slow down to produce words on the page, we can think more about the choice of words (vocabulary), their order (syntax) and how they interrelate (grammar). Once we have focused on a particular language item, doing some writing that requires assimilating it into a text, helps students to be conscious of the meaning and form.

2. To focus on accuracy

As we are able to slow down and edit what we write (compared with the spontaneous production of spoken language) we do have the opportunity to reflect on mistakes, check our grammar and spelling and produce more accurate language.

3. To consolidate learning

For many of us (I am one definitely) writing things down helps cement words and ideas into our working memory. Interestingly, research shows that handwriting is a more effective tool than typing here. The more different ways we practice language items, the better we will remember them.  

4. To enable students to explore and reflect on language in a conscious way

While a certain amount of our learning is through acquisition – language becomes embedded naturally through contextualized use, there is a need to think about and notice how language actually works – how the constituent parts fit together. We also have a text in front of us which we can return to and edit and improve.

5. To have evidence of students’ progress / proficiency

And once students have produced a good piece of writing, they can pat themselves on the back as they read it again and see the teacher’s positive comments. Not only students benefit from having these tangible examples of what they are able to produce (it is so important for them to see how well their language is developing), it is crucial for teachers to see this as well as show parents and other stakeholders.

6. To allow quieter students to show their strengths

Did you know that on average teachers wait 2 seconds for an answer after asking a student a question before moving on to another? As not all students have the chance to speak out in class (or the requisite speed) or have confidence in their English, writing gives them time and sometimes the required quiet space to showcase what they have learnt – as well as their ideas and creative ability (more on that later).  We need to be aware of all our students’ capabilities not just the assertive ones’.

7. It’s a good peer-teaching opportunity

I cannot stress enough how important it is for students to engage in collaborative writing tasks where they can share ideas and talk about language (e.g. ‘Is this the right word/tense? How can we make this sound better?) and help each other. I refer you to Vygotsky’s Zone of Proximal Development here. We can always do better and learn from this type of collaborative work when we have support and encouragement. A teacher can be co-collaborator in that process, too.

In this way, the writing process becomes less daunting, more enjoyable and students’ confidence grows.

8. To contribute to intellectual development

‘Who do you admire most?’, we may ask students in a writing task. It’s not enough to have grammar, vocabulary and punctuation, writing requires thought, ideas and the ability to manipulate language to get things done. To persuade, to explain, to surprise etc.

In the worst case scenario, students rely on model answers, but this means they are missing out on firing up the synapses in their brain, using world knowledge, activating schemata and asking themselves questions – What do I actually think about this topic? If they are doing this, they are engaged and motivated. And we are allowing them to develop as people.

9. For variety

A writing activity can take just 5-10 minutes in class and can really help to change focus, calm students down and either consolidate what came before or prepare for the next stage of the lesson. And it can inject some much-needed fun into the class!

10. To prepare for exams

Finally, and last but not least. Of course, writing is a major element in exams. And that’s a good reason to think about it more and plan meaningful and effective tasks.

Why encourage creativity?

Because all language use is creative…

Language is a process of free creation; its laws and principles are fixed, but the manner in which the principles of generation are used is free and infinitely varied. Even the interpretation and use of words involves a process of free creation.


The classroom easily becomes the place where students think there is a ‘right’ answer that the teacher is looking for and nothing else will do. (I wonder where they get that idea??) They often don’t dare be creative. I have had students look at me with shock and horror when I suggest they don’t have to tell the truth in a speaking or writing exam. 

The more creative students can be when writing, the more thought will go into what they write and therefore the more meaningful (and memorable) it will be. We must stress to them that writing something personalized and even, fun, is GREAT! What they need is the opportunity to use and show off as much of the language they have learnt as possible.

I like this Edward de Bono quote:

Rightness is what matters in vertical thinking. 

Richness is what matters in lateral thinking.

as it really links with what students need in order to do well in their writing exams. They must try to be accurate but also show off the language they have learnt!!

Here are a few ideas to promote creativity in class. 

1. Brainstorming writing questions

Before students write, allow them to make as many suggestions as possible about ideas, topics, vocabulary etc that that might incorporate to answer a writing question. Encourage them to move beyond the obvious, and therefore boring, approach.

2. Supply a frame

Nowadays we are using more and more technology to make life easier and more interesting. I must say that the most …........ tool I have ever ............ is my .................. It is …............. .................. to my everyday life.

I can’t live without it because....

There is only one thing that would make it even better and that is if...............

The frame allows students to relax and focus on the interesting parts of the text. Once they fill in the blanks they have a ‘good’ piece of writing to reflect upon.

3. This is a favourite game of mine. You can use it as a warmer, adjusting the content to suit the level of your students.

Display a selection of words (nouns, adjectives, prepositons, conjunctions etc) like this

coffee    stop    sheep parents students a    teacher     lazy     and twenty      hungry   have    surprised   some    are  suddenly   sometimes eat   enough in seem         politics    summer    at     smell              because       look      think

Ask students to first produce a one word sentence using any word here. (e.g. Stop!). Make sure you challenge any suggestions that are not actually sentences. Then ask for suggestions for a 2 word, then a 3 word sentence. Once they get the idea, ask them to work in pairs or small groups and keep going, making each sentence they write one word longer. Make sure to give a time limit, otherwise they might keep going until the end of the lesson. 

This is a very creative and fun activity, that encourages a strong focus on grammatical accuracy.

A note of assessing writing

Discuss marking criteria

e.g. I am going to give you marks for good ideas and interesting vocabulary

Don’t get distracted by ‘mistakes’

Mark positively e.g. highlight everything that is correct and interesting in the text instead of pointing out all the mistakes, which may well be minor

Encourage self and peer assessment

Under no circumstances should you highlight ever single mistake. That is too negative and does not help students to differentiate between the types of mistakes they are making nor recognise their willingness to take risks and try something linguistically challenging. 


Developing Reading and Writing Skills - some classroom tasks

Did you know that the written word was invented three times in three different places?
5000 years ago in Mesopotamia, 3400 years ago in China and 2700 years ago in Mesoamerica. But for the same purpose - as an accounting system to record grain storage and for tax and legal matters.

To me the written word is truly magical as it requires a unique synthesis of reader and writer as messages are passed between them.

We need to consider not only accurate use of grammar but also choice of words e.g. connotation, register, music and jargon.

Unfortunately, too much focus gets stuck on representational language (John McRae) 
e.g. The house was near a river. 
This kind of text requires manipulation and understanding of the mechanical aspects of grammar and vocabulary.
But it’s not interesting or challenging or particularly authentic…or that useful for exams!!

The really interest area to focus on is referntial language, where meaning is quite often found (or lost) between the lines.

Here are some classroom tasks that you can try out with your learners.

1. Orientation to a text
Show each fragment of text one by one and ask students to suggest what kind of text this is. You can follow this up by asking them to work in pairs and write one or two more sentences to continue the text in the same style.

Once upon a time……….
I regret to inform you……………
She grabbed the gun and pointed it at Dillon.
All this can be yours for only 999 euros, if you call this number…………
Add two tablespoons of flour and an egg and mix

2. Slogans
Show a famous slogan e.g. Just do it – and ask students to work in groups and tell each other what these words suggest / mean to them. Share ideas as a class. Here they are interpreting the message.

Now suggest a product or brand and ask them to write a very short slogan for that brand.

3. In your own words

Show a famous, level-appropriate quote e.g.

We are all in the gutter, but some of us are looking at the stars. (Oscar Wilde)

And ask students in pairs to rephrase it in their own words. 

4. Extend the text

e.g. Ernest Hemingway was dared to write a 6 word short story and this is what he produced.
For sale: baby shoes. Never worn.
Ask students to extend the story.
You can also ask them to write their own 6 word short story.

5. Just add one or two more questions to any reading activity which make students ‘engage’
¥ What would you do in that situation?
¥ Why do you think that happened?
¥ What do you think happened next?
Questions that have NO wrong answers.

5. Supply a frame
To help students focus on the ‘heart’ of a story, give them a frame like this and ask them to work in small groups filling the gaps to create a story that makes the reader think, laugh or sigh.

Once upon a time there was a ....................  girl who lived in a .................... village.  Her mother and father were very .................. She liked to play in the ................... with her ..................... friend, who was called .......................
One day they found a ........................... and they took it to the police station. The policeman was very ......................... and told them they could keep it. They were very ..................................

6. This idea is from: Challenge to Think,  Christine Frank, Mario Rinvolucri, Marge Berer
Oxford University Press

Explain to students that in each case the speaker says ‘I feel tired’. In what context iwould their intended message be:

It’s time you went home. (e.g. A host to dinner party guests)
Carry me.
I’m ready to die.
I’ve done enough work today.

7. Read and Respond

With a text like this:

The beach was long and wide caressed by the blazing sun suspended in the cloudless sky. The sea was calm, with gently lapping waves kissing the shoreline, which was scattered with brightly coloured shells. Palm trees swayed in the gentle breeze and coconuts lay around them where they had dropped. Tom’s yacht was sailing towards the fishing boats moored at the small marina to one side of the beach, where fishing nets lay on the quay drying in the hot sun.

Don’t give comprehension questions but as them to 

Draw what is described
Choose music to match the text
Talk about whether you’d like to be there and why
Compare to places you know
Imagine a story set in this location
Add the next line to start a story

Here are my top tips for Writing in class:

Do a little often in class
Pair and small group tasks
Celebrate creative ideas
Don’t obsess about grammar mistakes
Encourage extensive reading
Join in with the creative process 

And for Reading:

Ask students to respond to what they read in personalised ways and let them read a wide variety of different texts.


Motivation – simple strategies to add to our classrooms

Below is a summary of my recent plenary in Lisbon:


Teachers have clear aims for their lessons but these are not always shared and negotiated with or understood by students. Under the pressures of school work, often studying and being tested in more than 10 subjects, students’ motivation can flag and even disappear.


My contention is that in order to create and maintain motivation, students need:

·      a sense of direction and challenge

·      scaffolding versus teacher centredness

·      tunderstand and celebratesuccess in learning

·      ateacherwith the rightattitude  

·      motivating exam preparation

·      to have fun


1.   a sense of direction and challenge


It is vital for students to know what they are learning as well as why and how. They need to be part of the conversation and understand the learning journey.


Everyone can experience feelings of resolve and a commitment to think more and to dare more … and of being poised to learn and ready to take the next step.

Martin V. Covington, The Will to Learn, Cambridge University Press


Students need to understand WHY we do tasks, especially those that seem like a game, in class. They are under a lot of pressure preparing for exams and don’t want to think they are wasting time.

If we do a listening based on a pop song, we should ask students to think about how this task can help them develop their English skills, eliciting the following:


How is this helping you now?

To be able to understand song lyrics

To practise listening to authentic English

To watch English language TV / films

To learn new vocabulary

To practise particular grammar



To have successful conversations in English by decoding what is heard

To follow lectures in English

To build oracy and listening skills

To pass listening papers in Exams


It’s a great idea to get into the habit of asking ‘why did we just do that activity? How does it help develop your English skills / prepare for the exam?’ So that eventually students will understand our methodology / aims without being prompted.


Tasks / activities should have the right level of challenge – not too hard (demotivating) or too easy (boring)


we feel best in flow.. fully involved in meeting a challenge, solving a problem, discovering something new. Most activities that produce flow also have clear goals…

Csikszentmihalyi, Finding Flow, Basic Books, 1998



2.   scaffolding versus teacher centredness


Tasks should be scaffolded (see the earlier post below for details)


Jerome Bruner said:

The task may need to be simplified / broken down into manageable chunks

They made need to be shown how to do things

Their frustration needs to be managed

They need to see model of what they need to achieve 

And they need to be engaged and find solutions themselves!


For example, if we want our students to write a poem, we can introduce this poem to them and then get them to write their own version using the frame below.


I don’t like people

who can’t listen

who never read books

who smoke while I’m still eating

and who gossip about others.

I like people

who are energetic

who love children

who fight against stupidity

and who care about the fate of our planet.

Writing Simple Poems, Holmes & Moulton, CUP



I don’t like people

who can’t ........

who never .......

who ...........................

and ..................

I like people

who are ..............

who love ...................

who fight against ………

and who care about ..................


or a story writing task like this:


Once upon a time there was a ....................  girl who lived in a .................... village.  Her mother and father were very .................. She liked to play in the ................... with her ..................... friend, who was called .......................

One day they found a ........................... and they took it to the police station. The policeman was very ......................... and told them they could keep it. They were very ..................................


By filling in the gaps with their chosen vocabulary, students will have created a model of ‘good’ writing. There is no need initially to have the pressure of worrying about all the sub-skills needed to write texts.


Everyone can be successful if we


achieve ‘a realistic match between the individual’s present capacities and the demands of the achievement task’ 

Henry Widdowson


3.   tunderstand and celebratesuccess in learning


We should avoid making students feel that they are failing. No one likes to feel like a failure and it’s not a good starting point for making more effort in class.


All individuals can be characterised by two learned drives, a motive to approach success and a motive to avoid failure.

The Will to Learn, Martin V Covington, CUP



4.   ateacherwith the rightattitude  


Teacher attitudes are crucial – we are SO important sometimes in the tiniest almost imperceptible ways for maintaining and increasing our students’ motivation.


Carl Jung’s model of teacher / parentis a great 4 step approach to remember. Teaching is just as much about shaping the emotional development of students as about teaching the nuts and bolts of the English language.


Think – give information

Direct – give direction

Feel – care about well-being

Do – give confidence to carry out work


And this is also a very nice strategy to follow:


The Pygmalion Effect


High expectations lead to better performance: 

Rosenthal & Lenore, psychologists

said teachers should do the following to help students reach their potential


Expect the best

Be charitable when things go wrong

Be aware of how we give subliminal messages

Use positive reinforcement

Ignore students ‘bad’ moods


5.   motivating exam preparation


Don’t give students practice tests which they will do badly in and feel like failures. Consider how demotivating that can be.


       Allow students to collaborate on tasks

       Break tasks down and do small bits (together)

       Show models of good examples e.g. essays / videos of speaking tests (handbooks)

       Share marking criteria 

       Let students do practice tests for homework


Don’t forget to have FUN!!! 


Remember the philosophy of Winnie the Pooh


You’re braver than you believe, stronger than you seem and smarter than you think.